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Levamisole nonenzymatic breakdown products

The Backstory

Levamisole HCl has a great back story. We are including the tale of levamisole in our upcoming book and subscribers to our page will get the pre-print edition! For now, you should know that levamisole was created by design in the early 1960's by Paul Janssen. Dr. Janssen (1926-2003) was one of the 20th century's most innovative and inspiring pharmaceutical researchers. Levamisole was on the market for people, Ergomisol, and then it was removed. That's another story. The compound fell out of favor as a dewormer due to resistance, but it is still used in some children with nephrotic syndrome for immune modulation.


The protagonist Paul Janssen

Dr. Janssen established an independent research company after studying physics, biochemistry, and medicine in Belgium. He became a physician and went on to get a doctorate in pharmacology. Against all predictions at the time, he established Janssen Pharmaceuticals, and as is often the case, got a loan from Dad. Later in life he says his motivation was to show people he was right, he could succeed, and they were wrong. As luck would have it, the fifth molecule he synthesized was haloperidol. Haloperidol is used for psychosis and that success launched his long career. He ultimately developed over 80 medications that are still deemed essential by health organizations.


Other drugs he developed that you may have heard of are fentanyl, Lomotil, levamisole,

miconazole, flunarizine, etomidate, mebendazole, loperamide, cisapride, risperidone and many more. He eventually merged Janssen Pharma with Johnson and Johnson. He invented over 100 chemicals that were patented in his name. Janssen's contributions led to many breakthroughs in several fields of disease, including pain management, psychiatry, infectious disease and gastroenterology. He was a gifted and passionate scientist who revolutionized modern medicine.


From zero to current time

In the early 1960's Dr. Janssen set out to produce a dewormer for farm animals, his parameters were that it was novel, potent, safe, economical, injectable, and broadly active. He said at the time "it looked as if we were climbing trees to seek fish" because it wasn't until the 2,722nd compound that one worked. It didn't work well, but it turned the tide. He showed that three nematode species were removed from animals with the new compound. It didn't work in all animals so not great, but it was something. These results also hint about possible species differences in susceptibility. And this he says, was the beginning of a long story.


In hindsight, he reminisces about the intense activity which produced evidence to confirm their suspicion-- that their molecule was a pro-drug. To work the drug had to be metabolized by the liver into its active form. Only some species converted the drug into an active compound and all the tested laboratory derivatives, except one, were inactive. They found that the active molecule had two drawbacks, high production costs and limited stability in water. Amazingly enough, in an alkaline solution hydrolysis produces an insoluble compound that was later found to be one of the main metabolites.


Levamisole has many effects in the body, most are dose dependent. At very low doses, it inhibits alkaline phosphatases. It also inhibits other phosphatases. In mammalian biochemical pathways phosphokinases are controlled by "up-stream" regulators that are phosphatases and additional phosphokinases. Levamisole is a useful laboratory agent, it is used in cytochemistry and biochemistry and it is used to differentiate between specific phosphatases and non-specific alkaline phosphatases. Recently, we initiated a study to develop antibodies to over 150 phosphosites used in pathways associated with neurodegenerative diseases. These antibodies let us explore the treatment effect on phosphosites in these disease-associated pathways. Cytokines are regulated by phosphatases and cytokines are the modulators of the immune responses in the body.


Serendipity again

As you probably guessed, the ability to manipulate powerful pathways in an animal are granted by phosphatases. Back then, Dr. Janssen didn't know he created a molecule with these capabilities. He was surprised when his molecule did more than kill nematodes when it was used in field studies. He saw a remarkable effect in beagles, a pre-weaning mortality rate dropped from 25% to less than 5%. Pups no longer had atrophied thymus glands and distemper was eliminated from the colony. Hold that thymus gland thought, we will eventually give you that amazing story. The field studies showed that African school children had a peculiar beneficial effect on the host-defense mechanisms. Cattle in Chad had an increased resistance to contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, sheep in South Africa had a striking decrease in chlamydial infections, calves and pigs in Australia were surprisingly thrifty and free of parasitic, viral, bacterial or other infections. In Antwerp and Hawaii, ruminants and monkeys treated with levamisole were cured of herpes-like viral infections. The positive data kept coming in.


Field observations weren't enough to demonstrate the amazing findings, the experiments to prove the observations started. Trial and error pointed to benefits that were related to normalizing an abnormal immune response. More experiments revealed that levamisole restores cell-mediated immune reactions by normalizing the function of phagocytes and T-lymphocytes, when T-lymphocyte function is depressed. As word got out, by 1971 large-scale clinical research programs were started with the purpose of empirically testing the effect of levamisole on all of those human diseases that are definitely or conceivably caused or accompanied by anergy, or impaired cellular immune mechanism. Placebo based studies were conducted. Double blind, placebo controlled studies were done. We conducted many experiments in horses and horses with sarcocystosis. After we finish our field trial you will be able to read about all our work and the exciting discoveries we made.


The moral of the story

We like what Dr. Janssen said when he opined about drug research, it is an interdisciplinary endeavor. The various disciplines of science are like the fingers on a hand-- of the same origin, but no longer in contact. He has some profound words but these are his most powerful: "Our striving to carefully distinguish those things that we think we know from those that we don't know, which is the essence of scientific thinking, should not stand in the way of serendipity. In drug research the interesting, unexpected new lead should be followed up at once, bypassing the many trivial and scientifically irrelevant bureaucratic hurdles"...he goes on. He talks about the future of levamisole, the second phase of discovery where obvious facts can no longer be denied, but the whole story isn't told yet. And the third and final phase, still to come (at the time) when the drug is described in text books, effective, and safe...widely used and promoted...but alas, it becomes an old story.


We are taking the old story, and had Dr. Janssen been alive today, I believe he would be pleased where we are taking his molecule. We are still learning about it and by experiment, continue to explain why and how it works. There is a possibility this molecule, with some tweaks, will give us a treatment for human neurodegenerative diseases. And leishmoniasis. You did read Lost City of the Monkey God?


Funny thing, we think, is that things he said are long forgotten. For example, he said that levamisole has limited stability in water, he said that over 60 years ago. That was about the second observation that he made! Expensive to make and unstable in water. Researchers had mixed reactions with levamisole and research showed it was due to the non-enzymatic breakdown products. Papers were written. Breakdown products were produced as different researchers handled levamisole differently, it explained a lot. In 2018 it was again shown that levamisole had various breakdown products based on the storage conditions. This paper was reinventing the wheel in equine studies.


Each non-enzymatic breakdown product had a different effect on lymphocyte proliferation. Proliferation was increased or decreased or had no effect at all. That meant that the molecule is anti-inflammatory, immune modulating, or immune stimulating and it only took a few hours to breakdown when mixed in water. Refrigeration made no difference. Freezing was unwise. Room temperature, on the shelf, enhanced the various undesired molecules.


When you call us and ask why we spent so much research time and so much money on making a formulation for horses and didn't just mix things up in water, this is the reason why. Those that use wet formulations are repeating mistakes long corrected in the literature. If you are interested look at the primary literature, it is available to all. We are here at the bench because there is more to learn. We publish our experiments, please be sure and read our papers.








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